Achievement Goals During Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment
Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported adjustment variables. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of students: mastery (above average in mastery goals, below average in performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals), multi-goal (above average in all three goals), avoidant (above average in performance-avoidance goals, below average in mastery and performance-approach goals), and low motivation (below average in all three goals). Clusters differed in self-reported academic self-efficacy and perceptions of teacher support, teacher-reported academic competence, and peer nominations of social status. Mastery students had the most adaptive profiles; low motivation, the least adaptive. Avoidant boys had more maladaptive profiles than avoidant girls.
Wilson, Travis, Chanjin Zheng, Katherine A. Lemoine, et al. 2016. "Achievement Goals During Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment." Journal of Experimental Education 84(4): 723-743.
Taylor & Francis
Journal of Experimental Education
Achievement goals, Middle childhood, Social adjustment