Degree Year


Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Environmental Studies


David Orr
Roger Laushman
Clayton Koppes
Edie Swan


Agriculture, Northern Plains, Indians, Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara, Farming, Settlement, Dust Bowl


Between 1830 and 1930, the northern Plains underwent sweeping changes. Cataclysmic conflict between Indians and whites, imposition of the American settlement system, and integration into the national economy all altered the region and how people lived there. Revisions in agriculture were part of these changes but also played their own role. As the dominant form of land use, and the direct or indirect occupation of most residents, agriculture has an important part in shaping landscapes and lifeways in the, northern plains. Of course, changes in agriculture between 1830 and 1930 dramatically affected the people and the land; to suggest the nature and degree of the changes; the kind of agriculture practiced in 1830 and that practiced in 1930 can be strikingly contrasted.