Degree Year


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts




Tamika Nunley
Danielle Terrazas

Committee Member(s)

Leonard V. Smith, Chair


Nuevo Mexicano, Hispanic, New Mexico, Nineteenth century, US Civil War, Jose Francisco Chavez, Nicolas Pino, Microhistory, US-Mexican War, New Mexican society, Hispanic American, Spanish American


This thesis reconstructs the lives of two elite Hispanic New Mexican men who grappled with upheavals on the North American continent during the nineteenth century. Union army officers and influential patrones Nicolás Pino (1820-1896) and José Francisco Chavez (1833-1904) serve as the center of this paper’s narrative chronological historical analysis. Intensive primary source work in the New Mexico State Archives reveals their footprints in the military, political, and legal spheres before, during, and after the war. The biographies of Chavez and Pino serve as a microcosm of the changes and continuities in Nuevo Mexicano social, cultural, and military practices during these turbulent years, revealing historical moments as they were lived by individuals. Their responses to American Indian conflicts, shifting borders, fluid borderlands identities, two international wars, and the penetration of Anglo-Americans into the territory reveal how two members of the elite Hispanic New Mexican community worked to maintain their elite status in the face of massive change.

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