Title

Cross-ethnic and same-ethnic friendships in elementary classrooms: Unique associations with school adjustment

Abstract

Using a multi-cohort, 5-month longitudinal design, this study examined prospective links between stable crossethnic (CEF) and same-ethnic friendships (SEF) and psychosocial and academic indicators of school adjustment in elementary classrooms in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The sample included 1960 1st (M-age = 6.9), 3rd (M-age = 9.0), and 5th (M-age = 10.9) grade students followed from the middle to the end of the school year. Results showed that 64% and 66% of all children had at least 1 stable CEF and SEF, respectively; the frequency of each friendship type was higher across ascending grades. Stable CEF uniquely predicted residualized change in 4 indicators of school adjustment (lower loneliness and peer victimization, greater sense of peer community and academic effort); stable SEF uniquely predicted 2 indicators of school adjustment (lower loneliness and peer victimization). Classroom ethnic diversity moderated the link between CEF and peer victimization.

Publisher

Elsevier Science

Publication Date

7-1-2022

Publication Title

Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

Department

Psychology

Document Type

Article

DOI

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2022.101433

Keywords

Cross-ethnic friendships, Same-ethnic friendships, School adjustment, Elementary school, Peer victimization, Middle school, Racial/Ethnic friendships, Adolescent friendships, Intergroup attitudes

Language

English

Format

text

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