Extreme nonuniqueness of end-sum
We give explicit examples of pairs of one-ended, open 4-manifolds whose end-sums yield uncountably many manifolds with distinct proper homotopy types. This answers strongly in the affirmative a conjecture of Siebenmann regarding nonuniqueness of end-sums. In addition to the construction of these examples, we provide a detailed discussion of the tools used to distinguish them; most importantly, the end-cohomology algebra. Key to our Main Theorem is an understanding of this algebra for an end-sum in terms of the algebras of summands together with ray-fundamental classes determined by the rays used to perform the end-sum. Differing ray-fundamental classes allow us to distinguish the various examples, but only through the subtle theory of infinitely generated abelian groups. An appendix is included which contains the necessary background from that area.
Calcut, Jack S., Craig R. Guilbault, and Patrick V. Haggerty. 2022. “Extreme nonuniqueness of end-sum.” Journal of Topography and Analysis 14(02): 461-503.
Journal of Topography and Analysis
Dedicated to the memory of Andrew Ranicki.
End-sum, Connected sum at infinity, End-cohomology, Proper homotopy, Direct limit, Infinitely generated abelian group