Simpson's Paradox, Visual Displays, and Casual Diagrams
Simpson's paradox has been known for years and can arise in a wide variety of settings. When data exhibit Simpson's paradox, we are faced with the question of whether to use aggregated data or conditional data. In this article, we present ways to graph data to better understand the paradox and the use of causal diagrams as a tool for deciding whether or not to use conditional data.
Witmer, Jeff. 2021. "Simpson's Paradox, Visual Displays, and Causal Diagrams." American Mathematical Monthly 128(7): 598-610.
Taylor & Francis
American Mathematical Monthly