A phylogenomic perspective on gene tree conflict and character evolution in Caprifoliaceae using target enrichment data, with Zabelioideae recognized as a new subfamily
The use of diverse data sets in phylogenetic studies aiming for understanding evolutionary histories of species can yield conflicting inference. Phylogenetic conflicts observed in animal and plant systems have often been explained by hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), or horizontal gene transfer. Here, we used target enrichment data, species tree, and species network approaches to infer the backbone phylogeny of the family Caprifoliaceae, while distinguishing among sources of incongruence. We used 713 nuclear loci and 46 complete plastome sequence data from 43 samples representing 38 species from all major clades to reconstruct the phylogeny of the family using concatenation and coalescence approaches. We found significant nuclear gene tree conflict as well as cytonuclear discordance. Additionally, coalescent simulations and phylogenetic species network analyses suggested putative ancient hybridization among subfamilies of Caprifoliaceae, which seems to be the main source of phylogenetic discordance. Ancestral state reconstruction of six morphological characters revealed some homoplasy for each character examined. By dating the branching events, we inferred the origin of Caprifoliaceae at approximately 66.65 Ma in the late Cretaceous. By integrating evidence from molecular phylogeny, divergence times, and morphology, we here recognize Zabelioideae as a new subfamily in Caprifoliaceae. This work shows the necessity of using a combination of multiple approaches to identify the sources of gene tree discordance. Our study also highlights the importance of using data from both nuclear and plastid genomes to reconstruct deep and shallow phylogenies of plants.
Wang, Hong-Xin, Diego F. Morales-Briones, Michael J. Moore, et al. 2021. "A phylogenomic perspective on gene tree conflict and character evolution in Caprifoliaceae using target enrichment data, with Zabelioideae recognized as a new subfamily." Journal of Systematics and Evolution 59(5): 897-914.
Journal of Systematics and Evolution
Caprifoliaceae, Hybridization, Introgression, Phylogenetic networks, Zabelia, Zabelioideae