Title

Anatomical diversity and evolution of the anthocarp in Nyctaginaceae

Abstract

Nyctaginaceae are one of the most diverse families in core Caryophyllales. The most diagnostic character of the family is a persistent anthocarp derived from a calyx-like perianth. Anthocarp morphology is highly variable across the family, but its evolution is poorly studied. We investigate anthocarp evolution in Nyctaginaceae through extensive anatomical studies (159 species from 28 genera representing six of seven tribes) and phylogenetic character state reconstructions. We found highly diverse anthocarp anatomy across Nyctaginaceae, with most traits analysed evolving multiple times throughout the family. The representatives of three early-diverging clades of Nyctaginaceae (Leucastereae, Boldoeae and Colignonieae) possess a calyx-like anthocarp with simplified anatomy. The so-called 'glands' in Nyctagineae and Pisonieae are emergences, whereas wings originate by accrescence of perianth segments, elongation of the ribs and outgrowths (emergences) of anthocarp mesophyll. Anthocarp anatomy can be considered as a generic-level feature in Colignonieae, Pisonieae, Bougainvilleeae and Nyctagineae. The most dramatic transitions from perianth to anthocarp involve the shrivelling and abscission of the upper perianth part and the maintenance of the basal modified perianth portion that originated in the clade comprising Colignonieae and sister clades.

Publisher

Oxford University Press

Publication Date

5-1-2021

Publication Title

Botanical Journal of Linnean Society

Department

Biology

Additional Department

Archaeological Studies

Document Type

Article

DOI

10.1093/botlinnean/boaa093

Keywords

Character evolution, Phylogenetic analysis, Mucilage cells, Reproductive biology

Language

English

Format

text

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