Programmed Genome Processing in Ciliates
The ciliates are a group of protists distinguished by the hair-like cilia on their cell surfaces. Ciliates also possess two types of nuclei, a germline micronucleus and a somatic macronucleus. The micronuclear genome contains segmented genes divided by spacer sequences of DNA that are removed to generate the macronuclear genome during development. For some species, certain micronuclear gene segments can be reordered and/or inverted with respect to their final gene sequence in the macronucleus. This chapter explores the similarities of and differences between micronuclear genomes and the processes of macronuclear development across different ciliate species.
Goldman, Aaron David, Elizabeth M. Stein, John R. Bracht, and Laura F. Landweber. "Programmed Genome Processing in Ciliates." In Discrete and Topological Modeling in Molecular Biology, edited by Natasa Jonoska and Masahico Saito, 273-287. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2014.