A Calcineurin Homologous Protein Is Required For Sodium-proton Exchange Events In The C. Elegans Intestine
Caenorhabditis elegans defecation is a rhythmic behavior, composed of three sequential muscle contractions, with a 50-s periodicity. The motor program is driven by oscillatory calcium signaling in the intestine. Proton fluxes, which require sodium-proton exchangers at the apical and basolateral intestinal membranes, parallel the intestinal calcium flux. These proton shifts are critical for defecation-associated muscle contraction, nutrient uptake, and longevity. How sodium-proton exchangers are activated in time with intestinal calcium oscillation is not known. The posterior body defecation contraction mutant (pbo-1) encodes a calcium-binding protein with homology to calcineurin homologous proteins, which are putative cofactors for mammalian sodium-proton exchangers. Loss of pbo-1 function results in a weakened defecation muscle contraction and a caloric restriction phenotype. Both of these phenotypes also arise from dysfunctions in pH regulation due to mutations in intestinal sodium-proton exchangers. Dynamic, in vivo imaging of intestinal proton flux in pbo-1 mutants using genetically encoded pH biosensors demonstrates that proton movements associated with these sodium-proton exchangers are significantly reduced. The basolateral acidification that signals the first defecation motor contraction is scant in the mutant compared with a normal animal. Luminal and cytoplasmic pH shifts are much reduced in the absence of PBO-1 compared with control animals. We conclude that pbo-1 is required for normal sodium-proton exchanger activity and may couple calcium and proton signaling events.
Wagner, Jamie, Erik Allman, Ashley Taylor, Kiri Ulmschneider, et al. 2011. "A Calcineurin Homologous Protein Is Required For Sodium-proton Exchange Events In The C. Elegans Intestine." American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology 301(6): 1389-403.
American Physiological Society
American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology
Caloric restriction, Caenorhabditis elegans, Motor program, Rhythmic behavior, Defecation