Participatory and Action Research Methods
The term “action research” is associated in the USA with Kurt Lewin, who published extensively on action research from the 1940s onward and gave these methods their conceptual form. To Lewin (1946), action research was comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action .... [it is] a big spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action. [Action, research, and training form] a triangle that should be kept together for the sake of any of the corners, (pp. 202–211)
Wisner, Ben, David Stea, and Sonia Kruks. "Participatory and Action Research Methods." In Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design, Vol. 3, edited by Ervin H. Zube and Gary T. Moore, 271-295. New York: Springer US, 1999.