School quality and educational attainment: Japanese American internment as a natural experiment
In 1942, the United States incarcerated all Japanese Americans on the West Coast, including children, in internment camps. Using non-West Coast Japanese Americans and non-Japanese Asians as control groups, I estimate the effect of attending a War Relocation Authority school on educational attainment. Non-linear difference-in-differences estimates suggest that attending school within the internment camps decreased the probability of receiving a post-collegiate education by approximately 4 to 5 percentage points and decreased the probability of receiving a college degree by between 2 and 7 percentage points. I find some evidence that attending a WRA school may have decreased the returns to education as well. By using un-incarcerated birth cohorts and races, placebo tests find no evidence that the identifying assumptions are violated.
Saavedra, Martin. 2015. "School quality and educational attainment: Japanese American internment as a natural experiment." Explorations in Economic History 57: 59-78.
Explorations in Economic History
School quality, Education, Returns to education, Japanese American Internment