Effects of the interstellar medium on detection of low-frequency gravitational waves
Time variable delays due to radio wave propagation in the ionized interstellar medium are a substantial source of error in pulsar timing array efforts. We describe the physical origin of these effects, discussing dispersive and scattering effects separately. Where possible, we give estimates of the magnitude of timing errors produced by these effects and their scaling with radio frequency. Although there is general understanding of the interstellar medium propagation errors to be expected with pulsar timing array observations, detailed comparison between theory and practice is still in its infancy, particularly with regard to scattering effects.
Stinebring, Dan. 2013. "Effects of the interstellar medium on detection of low-frequency gravitational waves." Classical and Quantum Gravity 30(22): 224006.
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Physics and Astronomy
Pulsar scintillation arcs, Refractive scintillation, VLBI astrometry, Parabolic arcs, Flux-density, Spectra, Plasma, Scattering