Mechanochemical Conversions Between Crystalline Polymorphs of a Complex Organic Solid
We report the conversion between three crystalline polymorphs of a capped amino acid, N-acetyl-l-phenylalanyl-NH2, using mechanochemistry, with conversion between the α and γ polymorphs being reversible, depending on the milling conditions used. Solvent drop grinding of the α and β polymorphs with water yields the γ polymorph, whereas dry grinding of the β or γ polymorph yields the α polymorph. The α and β polymorphs are also accessible from solution (from methanol and water, respectively), and their structures were solved from single crystal diffraction data. The γ polymorph, so far only accessible mechanochemically, was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The polymorphs show various degrees of crystallographic disorder, and the numbers of crystallographically independent molecules vary. These observations are supported by 13C and 15N magic angle spinning solid-state NMR data. Possible reasons for the formation of multiple polymorphs and their respective stability as a function of Z′, degree of disorder, and molecular shape and conformation are discussed. The results have implications for understanding the accessibility of new polymorphs of complex, low-symmetry organic solids with multiple dihedral degrees of freedom.
Altheimer, Benjamin D., Silvina Pagola, Matthias Zeller, and Manish A. Mehta. 2013. “Mechanochemical Conversions Between Crystalline Polymorphs of a Complex Organic Solid.” Crystal Growth & Design 13(8): 3447-3453.
American Chemical Society
Crystal Growth & Design
Chemistry and Biochemistry