Differential effects of Phe19 and Phe20 on fibril formation by amyloidogenic peptide AB16-22 (Ac-KLVFFAE-NH2)
The sequence KLVFFAE (Aβ16–22) in Alzheimer's β-amyloid is thought to be a core β-structure that could act as a template for folding other parts of the polypeptide or molecules into fibrillar assemblies rich in β-sheet. To elucidate the mechanism of the initial folding process, we undertook combined X-ray fiber/powder diffraction and infrared (IR) spectroscopy to analyze lyophilized Aβ16–22 and solubilized/dried peptide containing nitrile probes at F19 and/or F20. Solubilized/dried wild-type (WT) Aβ16–22 and the peptide containing cyanophenylalanine at F19 (19CN) or at F20 (20CN) gave fiber patterns consistent with slab-like β-crystallites that were cylindrically averaged around the axis parallel to the polypeptide chain direction. The WT and 19CN assemblies showed 30-Å period arrays arising from the stacking of the slabs along the peptide chain direction, whereas the 20CN assemblies lacked any such stacking. The electron density projection along the peptide chain direction indicated similar side-chain dispositions for WT and 20CN, but not for 19CN. These X-ray results and modeling imply that in the assembly of WT Aβ16–22 the F19 side chain is localized within the intersheet space and is involved in hydrophobic contact with amino acids across the intersheet space, whereas the F20 side chain localized near the slab surface is less important for the intersheet interaction, but involved in slab stacking. IR observations for the same peptides in dilute solution showed a greater degree of hydrogen bonding for the nitrile groups in 20CN than in 19CN, supporting this interpretation.
Inouye, H., K.A. Gleason, S.M. Decatur, and D.A. Kirschner. 2010. "Differential effects of Phe19 and Phe20 on fibril formation by amyloidogenic peptide AB16-22 (Ac-KLVFFAE-NH2)." Proteins: Structure, Function, And Bioinformatics 78: 2306-2321.
Proteins: Structure, Function, And Bioinformatics
Chemistry and Biochemistry